Hydraulic modeling during filling and emptying processes in pressurized pipelines: a literature review
Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar
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Filling and emptying processes are common maneuvers while operating, controlling and managing water pipeline systems. Currently, these operations are executed following recommendations from technical manuals and pipe manufacturers; however, these recommendations have a lack of understanding about the behavior of these processes. The application of mathematical models considering transient flows with entrapped air pockets is necessary because a rapid filling operation can cause pressure surges due to air pocket compressions, while an uncontrolled emptying operation can generate troughs of sub-atmospheric pressure caused by air pocket expansion. Depending on pipe and installation conditions, either situation can produce a rupture of pipe systems. Recently, reliable mathematical models have been developed by different researchers. This paper reviews and compares various mathematical models to simulate these processes. Water columns can be analyzed using a rigid water column model, an elastic water model, or 2D/3D CFD models; air–water interfaces using a piston-flow model or more complex models; air pockets through a polytropic model; and air valves using an isentropic nozzle flow or similar approaches. This work can be used as a starting point for planning filling and emptying operations in pressurized pipelines. Uncertainties of mathematical models of two-phases flow concerning to a non-variable friction factor, a polytropic coefficient, an air pocket sizes and an air valve behavior are identified. © 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Funding for Oscar E. Coronado-Hernández was covered by Fundación Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios Básicos y Aplicados (CEIBA) – Gobernación de Bolívar (Colombia). This study was also supported by the Program Fondecyt Regular [Project 1180660] of the Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (Conicyt), Chile.
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