This research presents an efficient energy management system (EMS) for battery energy storage systems (BESS) connected to monopolar DC distribution networks which considers a high penetration of photovoltaic generation. The optimization model that expresses the EMS system with the BESS and renewable generation can be classified as a nonlinear programming (NLP) model. This study reformulates the NLP model as a recursive convex approximation (RCA) model. The proposed RCA model is developed by applying a linear approximation for the voltage magnitudes only at nodes that include constant power loads. The nodes with BESS and renewables are approximated through the relaxation of their voltage magnitude. Numerical results obtained in the monopolar version of a 33-bus system, which included three generators and three BESS, demonstrate the effectiveness of the RCA reformulation when compared to the solution of the exact NLP model via combinatorial optimization techniques. Additional simulations considering wind power and diesel generators allow one to verify the effectiveness of the proposed RCA in dealing with the efficient operation of distributed energy resources in monopolar DC networks via recursive convex programming.